Lekársky obzor 11/2020

Lekársky obzor 11/2020

Časopis vyšiel v anglickom jazyku

Leading topic: Covid-19 in homeless, migrants and other settings at risk

Lekársky obzor - Lek ObzHealthcare
Anna LESŇÁKOVÁ, Ľudmila LYSÁ, Mirka FERIANCOVÁ, Lenka PALCOVÁ, Soňa HLINKOVÁ, Vladimír LITTVA: Evolution of the coronavirus disease COVID-19
Vladimír MASZLAK, Pavol ZEMKO, Gyorgy HERDICS, Martin JURÁŠEK, Anna PAVLOVIČOVÁ, Francis RADI, Katarína BUNDZELOVÁ, Michaela KOSTIČOVÁ, Silvia ZABAVOVÁ, Peter GOMBITA, Anton FABIÁN, Alena MATEJOVÁ, Peter LACA, Michal VALACH, Milan SCHAVEL, Dávid TONZAR:  Zero Covid-19 incidence    among two large  shelters of homeless population in rural settlement- in march-to july 2020: An  important role of partial lockdown

Každé jubileum  je nepochybne dostatočným dôvodom na krátke hodnotenie a úprimné prianie. Zhostiť sa oboch týchto obligátnych aktov v prípade profesora  Krčméryho nie je jednoduché, ale je to veľká príležitosť vyjadriť  úctu a poďakovanie za všetko to, čím nás obohatil a ako významne prispel k našej vlastnej zmene.

SUMMARY
The article briefly discusses the epidemiological situation in Slovakia and in the world since the outbreak of the pandemic caused by COVID-19. It presents the most recent statistics on the number of cases and tests from neighbouring countries and from the countries with less stringent conditions of their entry, emphasizing that despite the current favourable epidemiological situation in Slovakia, it must be kept in mind that infection risk still persists.

SUMMARY
Homeless population, social shelters mental facilities and elderly nursing homes ate at risk for uncontrolled local spread ov Covid-19 disease in Europe. Herewe present a partial lockdown strategy to prevent the import of this communicable and highly contagious disease to two large shelters for homeless, as rural  satellites serving for two major cities with population of  more than 100 thousand with a partial lockdown strategy resulting to zero incidence within the major period of pandemics from march to july.

SUMMARY
Covid Pandemics is related with high overall mortality mainly in high risk and vulnerable groups such as elderly and multiple organ failure patients. Here present and example of strategy to prevent Elderly-Senior Hommeless group of clients/patients within and Urban environment affected by Covid epidemics in march to april 2020.

SUMMARY
Introduction: Uncontrolled hypertension is one of the main risk factors of disability and premature mortality in homeless population. The aim of the study was to screen for hypertension and explore the factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension in sheltered homeless adults during COVID-19 pandemic.

SUMMARY
Pandemics of fast-spreading COVID-19 infection caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-was reportedly worsening the situation of refugees and migrants worldwide. Border closures  resulted in overcrowded accepting facilities and movement restrictions and limited access to the services for asylum seekers. Children and unaccompanied minors were facing violence, psychological, and social affliction.

SUMMARY
The aim of the article is to analyze how German hospitals react to the impact of COVID-19, how patient care is delivered and what challenges arise. For this purpose, the current situation will be presented first and what measures have already been taken to contain the pandemic. It will also be mentioned, how Germany has reacted to pandemics that have already been overcome and how these have developed in comparison to COVID-19. The impact of COVID-19 on hospitals and the healthcare system will show which measures have been taken to optimize processes in order to provide medical care for all patients. In conclusion, it will be clear once again that the German healthcare system has made the right decisions and that hospitals are prepared for further waves of COVID-19 and future pandemics.

SUMMARY
COVID-19 proposes a new challenge for modern dentistry, because dental professionals are at a very high risk of contracting the Coronavirus, due to the increased exposure to aerosols and droplets generated during dental treatments.

SUMMARY
Spectrum of communicable and noncommunicable  diseases in outpatient department in rural Albania is analyzed and preventive and therapeutic methods in resource limited setting in Fier ad ostriches in South Albania is discussed among 460 outpatients. Majority of diseases were related to the rural type of population facing poverty and limited access to healthcare system.

SUMMARY
Introduction: Effective public health surveillance system is crucial for early detection and response to disease outbreaks. In 1998, Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. Despite that, goals of complete and timely weekly, monthly and quarterly surveillance reports from health facilities have not been achieved. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of training healthcare workers on IDSR and implementation of electronic disease surveillance reporting system in Kwale County.

SÚHRN
Cieľ: Zámerom našej práce bolo skúmať najčastejšie mechanizmy rezistencie u vybraných karbapeném-rezistentných Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) kmeňov ako aj zistiť rezistenciu voči súčasne podávaným liečivám a novým antimikrobiálnym látkam.
Metódy: Kmene získané od hospitalizovaných pacientov boli najprv izolované a následne identifikované v našom laboratóriu. Dôkaz mechanizmov rezistencie bol preukázaný fenotypovými ako aj genotypovými metódami. Kvantitatívna kolorimetrická mikro-metóda a E-testy boli použité na stanovenie antimikrobiálnej rezistencie.

SUMMARY
Objective: We aimed to investigate the most prevalent resistance mechanisms in selected carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains as well to determine drug resistance to actual and novel antimicrobial agents.

SÚHRN
Východisko: Cieľom štúdie bolo zistiť nosičstvo kmeňov Staphylococcus aureus na nosovej sliznici u pacientov pred operačným zákrokom a analyzovať kmene MRSA /MSSA a detekciu toxínu PVL.

SUMMARY
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the carrier status of Staphylococcus aureus strains on the nasal colonisation of patients before surgery and to analyze MRSA/MSSA strains and the detection of PVL toxin.

SUMMARY
Paediatric HIV infection is still an alarming cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.  Active HIV infection is an important cause of growth retardation in developing world. However, with ART more available worldwide, the consequences seem to be less devastating.

SUMMARY
Aging males need regular personalized medical examination. It is important to begin examining males over 40, and if they have any problems, early resolve them, and thus avoid serious illness or death.

SUMMARY
Introduction: This study was aimed at the diagnostics of Cryptosporidium spp. in children suffering from malignant diseases with watery diarrhea. Cryptosporidiosis has the potential to become a nosocomial infection. Due to the fact, there is no effective etiological treatment available, in cancer patients, any associated infection can have fatal consequences, rapid and accurate diagnostics and intervention is needed in case of these intestinal pathogens.

SUMMARY
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) belongs to a group of bacteria forming the ESCAPE group (acronym of bacteria that cause severe hospital infection- Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae). The Slovak republic is in the red zone of staphylococcal resistance (red zone 25-50%), the average incidence of MRSA in Slovak republic is 29% in 2017.